All over the world, as the price of traditional fuel increases significantly, interest in the discovery and use of alternative energy sources is also growing. One such source is biodiesel. According to the National Biodiesel Board (National Biodiesel Board), such a term is called a combustible fuel derived from renewable economic resources.
This type of fuel should not contain petroleum products, but can be mixed in any proportion with conventional fuel to produce a biodiesel mixture. In addition, for its use in diesel engines requires a slight alteration. Finally, biofuel can decompose in the environment, is non-toxic and does not contain sulfur and aromatics, which makes it attractive to consumers and distributors.
To date, different countries, taking into account the climatic zones and agrarian traditions, have relied on various sources of oil and fat. In addition to vegetable oils and technical fats of animal origin, fish waste and small mesoplagic fish, from which mechanically form biomass, can be obtained as a result of which fish oil is obtained, can serve as a promising source of oil and fat for biofuel.
If only the strictly defined organs of certain types of fish (mainly cod liver) are used to produce valuable vitamins medical fish oil, the most diverse, fat-rich waste from cutting fish in fisheries and fish canneries serves as raw material for obtaining technical fish oil. Most often, technical fish oil is melted from the insides of fish, from the so-called «rebound» (small fish, unfit for processing), fish, rejected by sanitary supervision for use as food, heads and other waste.
All this waste with full and rational use can give a huge amount of valuable technical fats.
Technical fish oils are rationally used for the production of biofuels.
Fats, melted from the entrails of fish at room temperature, have a liquid consistency, a yellowish color and a characteristic odor, they contain many esters, highly non-limiting acids, and therefore are easily oxidized.
The presence of such fatty acids has been established in fish oils: myristic, palmitic, zoomeric, stearic, oleic, isolinoleic, gadoleic, erucic, klupanodonic, etc. Fresh fat contains a small amount of free acids and the acid number is 0.1-0.4 KOH.
Technical fats are extracted from fish waste or by boiling them, or by extracting the fat contained in them with one or another fat-solvent.